住房


  • The House Price Problem
  • 房屋价格问题

ACT believes that the cost of housing is unacceptably high. Auckland has a significant housing shortage. The price of an average house in Auckland is nearly ten times the income of an average household. Internationally, three times the median income is considered ‘affordable’. The high price of houses means mortgage payments and rents are higher. Household budgets feel the pressure.

行动党认为当前的房屋价格已经远远超过了大多数人可以接受的范围奥克兰的房屋数量严重短缺,然而一栋房屋的均价几乎是一个家庭平均收入的十倍,远远高于国际定义的收入中位数三倍的可支付价格。高房价意味着更高的房屋贷款与租房费用,这让每个家庭都倍感压力。

The high cost of housing is widening the gap between people who own houses, and who don’t. People who own houses have increasing wealth as house and land values increase. People who don’t are paying more in rent and their income is not keeping pace. It is getting harder for renters to save for a deposit on their house. High rents are a cause of deprivation for low-income families.

不断攀升的房价加剧了房屋拥有者与非房屋拥有者之间的贫富差距。那些拥有房产的人可以通过土地与房屋的增值来增加自身的财富,租房的人则要缴纳更多的租金,然而他们工资增长的速度却赶不上租金增长的速度。对租房的人来说,省钱购买自己的房子将越来越难实现。高昂的租金削弱了低收入家庭的的支付能力,加重了他们的负担。

The housing shortage is placing costs on taxpayers as well. The high cost of private housing means the Government spends more on social housing through the Income Related Rent subsidy, and funds more support in Accomodation Supplements.

住房短缺同时也加重了纳税人的负担。高昂的个人住房成本意味着政府要花更多的资金用于社会福利住房,例如与收入挂钩的租赁补贴(Income Related Rent Subsidy)和住房补助金(Accomodation Supplements)。

 

  • The Resource Management Act:
  • 资源管理法案:

ACT believes that the major cause of the housing shortage in our cities is the RMA. Council plans and policies under the RMA determine whether enough houses will be built.

行动党认为造成城市房屋短缺的主要原因来自现行《资源管理法案》(Resource Management Act,简称RMA)的不足,正是因为市议会遵循RMA法案制定的计划和政策导致了我们没能建造足够的房屋。

The Act gives too much power to councils to restrict development. It requires councils to provide for environmental protection and conduct consultations, but doesn’t require them to consider property rights of owners, economic growth or provide for an adequate supply of housing.

该法案给市议会过多的权利以至于限制了新房源的开发。在RMA法案下,市议会只是一味要求工程方满足环境保护与施工咨询的要求,而并未考虑屋主产权、经济增长以及房屋供给是否充足等因素。

The number of new dwellings consented nationwide each year is still well below its peak of 39,000 in 1974. The Government’s Housing Accords and Special Housing areas have been a band-aid on a broken planning system but they do not address the fact that the RMA in its current form is not fit for purpose to deal with a major housing shortage in our main urban centres.

每年全国新建的房屋数目一直远低于1974年的最高值(39,000)。政府以修订特殊住宅区法案(Housing Accords and Special Housing Areas Act)来弥补其不完善的规划系统也只是治标不治本,它并不能掩盖现行的RMA法案已无法解决主要城市中心房屋短缺问题的事实。

 

 

  • ACT’s Housing Affordability Policy
  • 行动党的可负担性住房政策

 

  • Take Cities Out of the Resource Management Act.

将新西兰大城市从资源管理法案中移除

ACT would rewrite the Resource Management Act, and introduce new supply-focused urban planning legislation (Urban Development Act) for cities of 100,000 people or more. Urban environments, and areas at the edges of our cities should not be regulated and protected in the same ways as undeveloped natural environments.

行动党要求重新修订资源管理法案,并为规模超过10万人口的城市引入以供给为核心的新城市规划方案。对于大城市及其周边的环境管理与保护,应与未开发的自然环境地区的做法相区别。

 

ACT’s urban development legislation would prioritise supplying land and infrastructure, in response to demand. We would set price thresholds above which land would be automatically released for development. It would include obligations to set out future infrastructure corridors. 行动党的城市发展法案将以充分满足需求的土地的供给与基础设施的建设作为首要任务。我们提倡设定土地的价格区间,超过某一价格区间的土地将自动得到释放用于开发建设。新法案将涵盖制定未来基础设施建设的义务。

 

We would make zoning less restrictive, with fewer levels and types of zoning. We would strengthen property rights for existing owners by limiting objection rights to people who are directly affected, rather than allowing third parties to have a say.

我们将减少土地分区的种类和级别,从而减少土地划分的限制。我们要通过减少反对权,给予房屋拥有者更多的权利来决定如何使用他们的土地,而不是把决定权交给第三方。

 

  • Share GST Revenue to Build Infrastructure.

归还建设GST,推动基础设施建设

 

ACT would share a portion of GST revenue collected from the construction of new housing with the local council to incentivise them to approve planning of new homes.

行动党建议拿出一部分新房建设所征收的GST归还市议会,以此来激励地方政府加快对新房建设的审批速度。

 

The shared revenue would help cover the cost of infrastructure like roads, water and sewerage which councils must build to support new development. The cost of this infrastructure currently disincentivises approval of new houses and subdivisions.

地方政府得到的这一部分税收将用来承担道路、用水供给与污水处理等与新房项目配套的基础设施的建设。而当前基础设施的开销的确抑制了市议会对新房开发与土地分割的建设许可审批。

 

We also allow councils to use more flexible funding mechanisms for infrastructure. This could include permitting special targeted rates on new developments, to pay for the new infrastructure. Councils need both more flexibility and stronger incentives to plan for more housing.

同时,我们也支持市议会采取更灵活的筹款机制用于基础设施建设。这其中就包括对新开发项目征收特殊目的税,以此来支持新的基础设施建设。市议会需要更多的灵活运作和更强效的激励来为增加新房供给。

 

  • Compulsory Insurance for New Buildings.

推行新房强制保险

 

ACT would reduce the cost of compliance for builders, and reduce the financial risk on councils, by removing council building certification, in favour of a compulsory bond or insurance over new buildings. Requiring insurance for the replacement of the building would ensure standards are upheld while reducing the time spent on council inspections and red tape.

行动党建议对新建房屋征收强制押金或购买保险来代替市议会的建筑审查机制(由保险公司来履行建筑监管的职能),以此来减少建造商的成本、降低因市议会引起的财务风险。用强制性的保险来替代市议会的审查机制能够在确保建筑标准的同时,减少冗长的审查程序。

 

Replacing council building certification with compulsory insurance for 25 years would incentivise insurers to find the most reliable builders and best building supplies to insure. The builders’ incentive would be to get the best premiums and service, by proving they are building high-quality homes. Insurers could sign-off on building materials that are certified overseas, where councils are reluctant to today.

以25年的强制房屋建造保险代替市议会的房屋许可证能促使保险公司选择最合适的建造商以及最佳的供应商。同样激励建造商的是他们建造高质量房屋可获得最佳的保费和服务。而保险公司也能够选择使用海外认证的建筑材料,但如今市议会对此并不支持。

 

 

This is an agenda to fundamentally reform the housing market. Our great country deserves nothing less from its politicians.

David Seymour

 

这就是我党针对房屋市场基础改革的政策。好的政治家对一个国家的作用至关重要。

David Seymour